Fascinating flea facts

Fleas are the most common parasite for your pet. Find out the facts to fight fleas on dogs and cats.

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Fleas are reported to be the most common parasite affecting dogs and cats. Here are some facts that you may not have known:

 The world is host to over 2,000 species of flea, and they are a problem almost everywhere.

  • The cat flea is a very common type of flea, and despite its name, it also infests dogs, people and wild animals.
  • Fleas survive by drinking the blood of their host; a female flea can consume up to 15 times its own body weight in blood!
  • Fleas have a complex life cycle, with 4 different stages (eggs, larvae, pupae and adults). Only 5% of this life cycle is spent as adult fleas on a pet, the other 95% is spent as eggs, larvae and pupae in the environment, including your home!
Fleadirt

Fig. 1. Flea eggs are shed by infested pets wherever they go, including your bed!

 Once established, it takes at least 12 weeks of continuous treatment to resolve a flea infestation, and managing the issue can be very time consuming, frustrating and expensive.

  • A single tiny flea can quickly become a big problem. Female fleas lay up to 50 eggs per day and can live for up to 2 months on your pet; that’s 3,000 eggs from just 1 flea! In just 30 days, 25 adult female fleas can multiply to 250,000 fleas.
  • Flea pupae can remain dormant for months in the environment, meaning it takes a long time to get rid of them.

 

For more information about fleas, check our other articles here or visit www.bravopets.ie 

 

 

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Ticks; What is the risk to my pet?

Ticks can pose a serious risk to your pet including the transmission of Lyme Disease. Find out about the risks ticks can cause your pet.

Week 2 ticks

Ticks are a common and serious threat to pet and human health, causing a variety of health problems. The site of the bite can be become infected, causing irritation, pain and possibly leading to the development of abscesses. By far the biggest problem with ticks is the diseases they transmit.

Examples of diseases that ticks may transmit in Ireland and the UK include:

week 2 tickLyme disease

Lyme Disease is reported to be a growing problem around the world. In Europe, there was a 10-fold increase in human Lyme Disease cases between 1990 and 20101, and it is increasingly recognised as causing illness and hardship in people in Ireland2. It can also affect dogs, causing a variety of symptoms  including lameness, fever, anorexia, lethargy, swollen joints, and (albeit rarely) kidney failure. Diagnosis can be difficult, as the signs are often vague and it can take months for them to develop following the tick bite. The bacteria are difficult to eliminate, so long courses of antibiotics are usually required to treat affected pets.

Anaplasmosis

Anaplasmosis – symptoms include lethargy, swollen and painful joints, vomiting, diarrhoea, and neurological signs.

Babesiosis

Caused by a microscopic parasite that invades red blood cells of infected dogs. The disease can manifest with high temperature, increased respiratory rate, muscle tremors, anaemia, jaundice, weight loss and may be fatal. This disease is mainly found in continental Europe. There is a risk for travelling pets, but cases have recently been reported in the UK too.

For more information about ticks visit www.bravopets.ie

 

  1. europa.eu
  2. HPSC Factsheet on Lyme Disease

 

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Fleas – What is the risk to my pet?

 Worried about the risk of fleas to your pets? Learn about the risks and how to protect  your pet here.

Cat_scratching

Fleas are the most common external parasite to affect pets and can cause a wide variety of health issues. The most common signs of a flea infestation are related to the irritation caused by flea bites, including scratching and nibbling or biting at the fur. In cats, overgrooming is often seen.

Fleas can also cause more severe skin problems in animals which develop an allergy to fleas. This condition is known as flea allergy dermatitis (FAD), and pets with FAD can suffer from intense itching, hair loss and skin infections. Treatment with topical creams, steroids and antibiotics may be required in these cases.

Dog infection

Fig.1. Skin infection in a dog with FAD

Unfortunately, the list of problems doesn’t end there. Severe flea infestations can cause anaemia, especially in puppies and kittens, due to the amount of blood loss. Fleas can also transmit several diseases to dogs, cats and even humans including tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum).

Fleas will also bite people, causing skin irritation and itching, and sometimes triggering an allergic reaction.

Regular treatment is important to prevent a flea infestaion from developing. Speak to your vet about the most appropriate treatment  for your pet. There are a variety of options available, including spot-ons, sprays, collars as well as oral chewable formulations. Regular re-administration of product is required for effective long-term control of fleas, and there are products available which provide protection for as long as 12 weeks.

For more information about fleas, visit www.bravopets.ie

 

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1 in 3 dogs may have ticks!

As part of the big tick project, supported by MSD Animal Health in collaboration with Bristol University, veterinary surgeons in the UK examined dogs during routine consultations very carefully for the presence of ticks. The study found that 2181 out 7101 dogs (or one in three) was found to have one or more ticks present. 89% of ticks found were Ixodes ricinus.

Ticks can be involved in the transmission of many vector borne diseases, including zoonotic pathogens. Infections occur via saliva during feeding, or more rarely, after the parasite is ingested during grooming. Due to recent milder winters, there has been a continuation of tick activity resulting in the need for year round prophylactic treatment for pets.

Individual vectors may harbour more than one pathogen leading to atypical signs of a single disease. Heavy infestations of ticks removing large amounts of blood can also lead to signs of anaemia. Recently sample studies of ticks in Ireland were examined for the presence of vector borne diseases carried out by University College Dublin. Pathogens commonly identified were, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

Lyme disease is a common tick-transmitted disease affecting animals and humans. Ixodes ticks are recognized vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Also Babesia sp. which is transmitted by tick saliva affects animals and occasionally people. Patients present with moderate to severe haemolytic anemia, fever, anorexia, depression, splenomegaly and a bounding pulse. Dogs infected usually respond to treatment with imidocarb diproprionate and supportive treatment. Blood transfusions may be life-saving in very anemic animals. Illness of varying severity due to B felis in domestic cats has mostly been reported in southern Africa. An unusual feature of B felis is its lack of response to the normal babesiacides.

 

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Skin disease in pets

Pete pic

Pete Wedderburn aka Pete the Vet

Skin disease is one of the most common reasons for dogs being taken to the vet. It has been estimated that around 25% of veterinary consultations are due to skin problems. Many skin diseases are simple to cure, and within days of treatment, a full and permanent recovery occurs. However, some skin diseases are very difficult to resolve. Some unfortunate dogs suffer from chronic skin conditions which require a lifetime of daily medication, regular shampooing and almost constant veterinary supervision.

 

In all cases of skin disease, to give the most effective treatment, it is important to be able to identify the precise cause of the problem. Sometimes dogs with minor symptoms may respond to a general, nonspecific treatment, but if the symptoms are more severe, it is often necessary to carry out investigations to find out the exact cause of the problem.

Unfortunately, such investigations can be complicated and expensive. Although no single item may be very costly, many visits to vet are needed, often with long term medication. A complete list of possible causes of skin disease would be several pages long, but your vet will often be able to narrow down the possibilities quite rapidly, with a combination of a good case history, a thorough physical examination and sometimes using further investigations.

In some cases (such as fleas) the cause of a skin condition may be immediately apparent to the vet. During the physical examination, distinctive symptoms may be evident (such as the presence of flea droppings) which provide an immediate diagnosis. In such cases, a one-off course of medication and a check-up a few days later may be sufficient to resolve the problem. Even if fleas are not seen, vets may recommend a thorough flea treatment (such as a long acting tablet or a spot-on vial) to be absolutely sure that they are not the cause.

In other cases, diagnosis of the cause of the problem may not be simple. The vet may decide that further investigations are needed, which may involve a wide array of tests. A skin scrape is often the first stage. Skin scrapes are examined under a microscope, and allow the identification of certain parasitic mites. Even if a mite is not seen under the microscope, the vet may recommend a series of special anti-mite washes to make sure that mites have been completely ruled out. In some cases, a skin biopsy may be needed. A small wedge of skin is excised, from one or more affected parts of the body. The sections of skin are sent to a laboratory for analysis of the tissue. The microscopic appearance of the skin cells often provides useful clues about the type of skin disease.

The vet may recommend certain restrictive lifestyle changes for your dog if an allergy is suspected. This may involve keeping your dog on brown paper for bedding, on tiled floors only, and on tarmac only for exercise. If your dog improves on the restricted regime, then one by one new substances are reintroduced to your dog’s life. The old bedding may be returned to the basket, then exercise on grass may be allowed again, then access to carpets may be reintroduced. If your dog starts to itch again at any stage, then the cause of the itchiness must be the latest item to be re-introduced.

A similar approach to the diet, using specially prepared foodstuffs, may also be suggested. It is exceptionally difficult to reach a diagnosis in some cases of skin disease, and your vet may recommend a referral to a vet with a special interest in dermatology. When the diagnosis of the cause of a skin disease has been reached, a long term treatment plan can finally be devised. The process of investigation may have been lengthy, expensive and tiresome, but hopefully the resulting effective treatment will resolve your dog’s problem and make all of the effort worthwhile.

Please ensure you discuss any of your pets ailments with your vet to get accurate advice.

flea life cycle

 

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Harvest mites

Pete pic

Pete Wedderburn BVM&S MRCVS (aka Pete the Vet)

 

The creature on the consulting table had six hairy legs. It had a bulging round body which was a bright orange colour. After peering at it for a moment, I looked up from the magnifying glass and said to the owner ‘Yes – it is definitely a harvest mite’.

Harvest mites are seasonal parasites. They suddenly emerge in late July, August and September, and vets regularly find them infesting the feet of dogs and cats. The mites are correctly called Trombicula autumnalis, but most people know them by their colloquial names – Harvest mites or Red mites. Adult harvest mites have no interest in mammals – it is the larvae which cause problems. The larvae hatch out in meadows and scrubland, and they stick themselves to the underside of passing dogs, cats and wild animals. They remain on the skin for several days while they feed on the skin of their host. Unlike many parasites, they do not suck blood. Instead, their saliva digests the outer layers of the skin.

The mites most commonly attach to the underside of the feet. The skin here is very thin, sensitive and easily irritated. The symptoms of harvest mite infestation are so characteristic that many owners have made the diagnosis by the time they bring their pets to the vet.Affected dogs and cats start to lick their feet, and as the irritation worsens, they begin to chew the affected areas. This self damage causes the initially small irritated area to become a large, swollen, bright red patch of skin. Some dogs even become lame because of their painful feet. When the undersides of the feet are examined, it is often possible to see the mites with the naked eye. They have a red or orange colour, and they are no bigger than a pinhead. They tend to cluster together, and they can be seen like a sprinkling of red dust between the animal’s toes. When they are examined under magnification, their distinctive anatomy can be identified, and the diagnosis is confirmed.

There are many other causes of itchy feet, so it is always rewarding to find harvest mites. Some of the other conditions can be very difficult to treat and even impossible to cure. Problems caused by harvest mites are usually easily resolved. In a few cases, it is impossible to find the mites, even though the animal is showing classical signs of an infestation. This is because some animals are so thorough with their licking and chewing that they dislodge the mites before any treatment can be given. They should be treated for the mites anyway, to prevent further problems. The mites can cause itchiness in other parts of the body – the abdomen and the sides of the head can be affected, particularly in cats.

Infestations of Harvest Mites are treated by regular applications of insecticides. These can be applied in different ways – as shampoos, powders or sprays. Anti-flea preparations often help, and these now come as long-lasting products that can be given as sprays, spot-ons or even tablets. It’s important to choose the right product, and your vet is the best person to help you do that. Animals with Harvest Mites often need other medications, such as antibiotics and cortisone, to resolve the redness, itchiness and infection which accompany infestations. All in all, a visit to your local vet is the fastest way to completely cure your pet.

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